Similarly, the average minimum daily intake of chromium and nickel was 126.97 μg and 122.01 μg, as compared to allowable 30-35 μg and 35 μg, respectively; a 4-5 times higher exposure. Naswar dippers (Pathans) In comparison, India contributed only 11.7 per cent of records with maximum number of articles on the topics of epidemiology (26%) and adverse effects (45.8%). A total of 30 Pakistani brands of naswar were tested for a variety of toxic constituents and carcinogens such as cadmium, arsenic, lead and other carcinogenic metals, nitrite and nitrate, and nicotine and pH. Due to increase in evidence of potential harmful effects of naswar, there is a need for the health department to take action against use of naswar, as they have recently imposed sanctions on sale of gutka and betel nuts in the country. Consider switching to deca… toxicity of nicotine: Implications for nicotine, (2012). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dyslipidemia is one of the primary causes for coronary artery disease (CAD). There ishigher collagen breakdown in the connective tissue of NW groups as a result of naswar usage. LDL-C=Low Density Lipoprotein, Cholesterol, HDL-C=High Density Lipoprotein, In the present study we determined the levels of the, antioxidant enzymes GPx and SOD, as well as the lipid, section. It has been correlated with oral and oesophageal cancer in recent clinical studies. The percent loss of dry mass over exposure time and the rate of release of ICTP and CTX from all groups were compared using the paired t‐test to examine the effects of exposure time. Areca nut, having aercoline (the major alkaloid) causes carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity of oral mucosa through increased production of growth factors and corticotrophin-releasing hormone, and genetic alteration in expression of CASP8, APAF-1, BAX, BAD, and upregulation of caspas-3. GPx and SOD are antioxidant enzymes that protect, the cell against oxidative damages. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare clinical periodontal parameters and to assess the release of C-telopeptides pyridinoline cross-links (ICTP) and C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide (CTX) from gingival collagen of naswar (NW) and non-naswar dippers as control. The data collection tool was a questionnaire, which includes three main items: demographic, physical, and biomedical measurements. Objective: The aim of the present split-mouth retrospective study was to compare the clinical periodontal parameters among gutka-chewers and naswar-dippers. Conclusions: The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. She refused offers of evenings out with her friends, bypassed busy events and dreaded business meetings with a passion. Raman band at Amide I was observed with changes with slight shifts in wave numbers. increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Statistical analysis was performed usi. Results revealed that cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and glutathion peroxidase (GPx) enzyme were significantly higher in the 38 smoker sprayers than in the 42 nonsmoker sprayers. Desirable TC level (<200 mg/dl) in 73.0%, normal TG level (<150 mg/dl) in 59.0%, optimal level of HDL-C (<40 mg/dl) in 82.0% and normal LDL-C (<129 mg/dl) in 32.0% were found of the total population. Elevated total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and lowered high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are conventional risk factor in myocardial infarction patients. All content in this area was uploaded by Samina Bano on Sep 21, 2017, antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in its users, Clinical Biochemistry and Psychopharmacology Re, levels of antioxidant enzymes. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Comparison of periodontal inflammatory parameters among habitual gutka-chewers and naswar-dippers: A split-mouth retrospective clinical study, Setting research priorities in smokeless tobacco control: A retrospective review, A systematic review on association between smokeless tobacco & cardiovascular diseases, Nass use and associated factors among outpatients in northern Afghanistan: A cross-sectional study in Andkhoy City, Self-perceived oral symptoms and periodontal inflammatory conditions in habitual naswar dippers, A comparative profiling of oral cancer patients and high risk niswar users using FT-IR and chemometric analysis, Molecular Pathogenesis of Chewable Tobacco, Clinical and radiographic periodontal parameters and release of collagen degradation biomarkers in naswar dippers, NASWAR DIPPING, SHIFT IN BEHAVIOR IN MULTI ETHNICITY SETTING, Effects of smokeless tobacco "Maras powder" Use on markers of endothelial dysfunction, Risk of laryngeal and nasopharyngeal cancer associated with arsenic and cadmium in the Tunisian population, Study of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in tobacco chewers and smokers: A pilot study, Oxidative Stress Bio Markers And Antioxidant Status In Cigarette Smokers Compared To Nonsmokers, Assesment of potential toxicity of a smokeless tobacco product (naswar) availaible on the Pakistani market, Lipid profile, lipase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the serum of patients with atherosclerosis, The chemical composition of smokeless tobacco: A survey of products sold in the United States in 2006 and 2007, Effects of Cigarette Smoking on HDL Quantity and Function: Implications for Atherosclerosis, P53 (Pro72Arg) polymorphism associated with the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma in gutka, Naswar and manipuri addicted patients of Pakistan, Serum lipid and lipoprotein profile abnormality in predicting the risk of coronary artery disease in non-diabetic patients attending NMCTH, Birgunj, Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in patients of psoriasis. 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